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Dadurch ist eine wertvolle präventive Begleitkomponente realisiert, da Kinder übergewichtiger Patienten stärker zu Übergewicht neigen als Kinder nichtadipöser Eltern SIGN, , Evidenzklasse IV.

Neben einer besseren Stoffwechseleinstellung wurde u. Ein informierter Patient weist demnach eine höhere Compliance auf. Nach 3 bis 6 Monaten schwächt sich die Rate der Gewichtsabnahme ab und erreicht ein Plateau, da der Energieverbrauch während der Gewichtsabnahme zurückgeht National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute NHLBI , Gruppensitzungen, Steigerung der körperlichen Bewegung und ärztliche Verlaufskontrollen, die insbesondere der Stabilisierung des Gewichtserfolgs dienen Wadden et al.

Das Energiedefizit soll bevorzugt durch eine Verringerung der Fettaufnahme erreicht werden. Damit sollte übergewichtigen Patienten die Einhaltung von Ernährungsempfehlungen erleichtert und die Langzeitcompliance verbessert werden.

Diäten mit sehr niedriger Kalorienzufuhr: Drastisch kalorienreduzierte Ernährungsformen, z. Formula-Diäten, sehen eine Kalorienaufnahme von weniger als bis kcal pro Tag in Form von definierten Nährstoff-Drinks oder einer drastisch energiereduzierten, meist proteinreichen Kost vor und induzieren eine rasche Gewichtsabnahme.

Diese Diäten scheinen aber für eine langfristige Gewichtskontrolle wenig geeignet zu sein Frost et al.

Wegen des erheblichen Nährstoffdefizits kommt nur eine zeitlich begrenzte Anwendung 2 bis maximal 12 Wochen in Betracht. Solche Diätprogramme sind nur bei stark adipösen Patienten indiziert, die aus medizinischen Gründen kurzfristig Gewicht verlieren sollten.

Therapien mit drastischer Kalorienbegrenzung sollten wegen der nicht unerheblichen Nebenwirkungen besonders qualifizierten Therapeuten vorbehalten bleiben oder nur in entsprechenden Spezialeinrichtungen eingesetzt werden Wadden et al.

Formula-Diät-Produkte werden in verschiedenen kommerziellen Gewichtsreduktionsprogrammen angeboten. Es ist daher empfehlenswert, Techniken der Verhaltenstherapie in GewichtsmanagementProgrammen einzusetzen Empfehlungsgrad A.

Diese umfassen Selbstbeobachtung, Stimuluskontrolltechniken, Verstärkungstechniken, Techniken zur kognitiven Umstrukturierung und Programme zur gezielten Rückfallprophylaxe.

Gleichfalls wird in der Verhaltenstherapie die persönliche Verantwortung des Patienten für die Umsetzung des Gewichtsmanagement-Programms Selbstkontrolle in den Vordergrund gestellt Wardle, , Evidenzklasse IV.

Bewegungstherapie Jedes Gewichtsmanagement-Programm sollte die Bewegungssteigerung als Therapiekomponente beinhalten, da die Kombination aus Bewegungs- und Ernährungstherapie effektiver ist als jede der beiden Therapieformen alleine Skender et al.

Der besondere Wert der Bewegung liegt in der Stabilisierung des Gewichtserfolges. Bewegungstherapie allein resultiert in einem maximalen Gewichtsverlust von ca.

Meist wird Ausdauersportarten, die den Einsatz möglichst vieler Muskelgruppen erfordern, der Vorzug gegeben.

Sportarten mit hoher Gelenkbelastung oder hohen Geschicklichkeitsanforderungen sind weniger günstig einzuschätzen. Epstein et al.

Die medikamentöse Therapie sollte nur dann fortgesetzt werden, wenn zusätzliche Risikofaktoren, wie z.

Hypertonie, pathologische Glukosetoleranz oder Hyperlipidämie, signifikant gebessert wurden. Da derzeit neue gewichtssenkende Medikamente vor der Zulassung stehen, bzw.

Zentralwirkende Medikamente: Sie beeinflussen Mechanismen, die Appetit, Sättigung und Energieverbrauch steuern: Der Serotoninagonist Dexfenfluramin führt im Hypothalamus zu einer schnelleren Sättigung Campbell, ; Dollery, Die Wirksamkeit wurde in randomisierten, placebo-kontrollierten, doppelblinden Studien nachgewiesen.

Diese Gewichtssenkung konnte in der Behandlungsgruppe über einen monatigen Zeitraum aufrechterhalten werden Guy-Grand et al. Neben dem Gewichtsverlust war unter Dexfenfluramin auch eine Besserung von Hypertonie, Hyperglykämie und Dyslipoproteinämie zu verzeichnen Bremer et al.

Als gefährlichste Nebenwirkung von Dexfenfluramin gilt die pulmonale Hypertonie, die allerdings ein sehr seltenes Ereignis darstellt Abenhaim et al.

Cannistra et al. Bis Mai waren der amerikanischen Arzneimittelüberwachungsbehörde Food and Drug Administration Berichte über Herzklappenveränderungen bei adipösen Patienten, die durchschnittlich über einen Zeitraum von 9 Monaten eine Kombination von Fenfluramin und Phentermin eingenommen hatten, zugegangen.

Obwohl ein kausaler Zusammenhang zwischen dem Auftreten der Herzklappenveränderungen und der Einnahme von Fenfluramin, Phentermin oder Dexfenfluramin nicht gesichert ist, entschieden sich die Hersteller und Vertreiber von Dexfenfluramin zur weltweiten Rücknahme beider Substanzen bis zur Klärung des Sachverhaltes Arzneimittelkommission der deutschen Ärzteschaft, Sonstige Medikamente mit gewichtsenkendem Potential Stand: Metformin und Acarbose werden bei der Behandlung adipöser TypDiabetiker erfolgreich eingesetzt.

Ein geringer gewichtsenkender Effekt ist durch Studien von Scheen et al. Fluoxetin, Sertralin und andere selektive Hemmer der Serotoninwiederaufnahme können in der Behandlung von Depressionen, die mit der Adipositas in Zusammenhang stehen, eingesetzt werden, für die alleinige Behandlung der Adipositas sind sie jedoch nicht geeignet und auch nicht zugelassen Royal College of Physicians, b.

Zur Zeit sind zwei Substanzen im Zulassungsverfahren bzw. Sibutramin Bei Sibutramin handelt es sich um einen selektiven Serotonin- und NoradrenalinWiederaufnahmehemmer.

Randomisierte, kontrollierte Studien haben bei adipösen Patienten eine dosisabhängige Gewichtsreduktion gezeigt das Dosierungsoptimum lag bei mg , die über einen Zeitraum von 12 Monaten aufrechterhalten werden konnte Bray et al.

Die Gewichtsabnahme war mit einer Abnahme des Quotienten aus Taillen- und Hüftumfang sowie einer Verbesserung der Plasmalipid- und Blutglucosewerte verbunden Griffiths et al.

Nebenwirkungen von Sibutramin sind Übelkeit, trockener Mund, Obstipation, Schwindel und Schlaflosigkeit.

Geringe Erhöhungen der Blutdruckwerte im Mittel 3 — 5 mm Hg und der Herzfrequenz im Mittel 4 — 5 Schläge pro Minute wurden ebenfalls festgestellt.

Dies erklärt sich aus dem Mechanismus der zentralen Sympatikusaktivierung. Die blutdrucksteigernde Wirkung der Substanz wird im Verlauf der Behandlung durch den gewichtsbedingten Abfall des Blutdrucks mehr als aufgehoben Lean, a.

Die Zulassung von Sibutramin wurde beantragt. Orlistat Orlistat ist ein im Gastrointestinaltrakt wirkender Lipaseinhibitor Hauptman et al.

Damit war eine Verbesserung verschiedener Parameter des Lipid- und Glucosestoffwechsels sowie eine geringe Blutdrucksenkung verbunden.

Noch nicht endgültig geklärt ist die Frage, in welchem Umfang Orlistat die Absorption fettlöslicher Vitamine beeinträchtigt und inwieweit dieser Effekt physiologisch bedeutsam ist.

In Einzelfällen war unter Orlistat-Therapie eine Supplementierung mit fettlöslichen Vitaminen erforderlich James et al. Häufige, wenngleich nach allgemeiner Einschätzung harmlose Nebenwirkungen sind weiche Stühle, gesteigerter Stuhldrang, Meteorismus und Steatorrhoe.

In einer zum Zeitpunkt der Drucklegung publizierten 2-Jahres-Studie ermöglichte Orlistat eine zusätzliche Gewichtssenkung von im Mittel 4 kg Sjöström et al.

Orlistat wurde im August zur adjuvanten medikamentösen Behandlung der Adipositas zugelassen. Als Be- Stand: Orlistat ist verschreibungspflichtig.

Da bisher für beide Substanzen nur begrenzte Erfahrungen vorliegen, sind derzeit keine detaillierten Empfehlungen für eine medikamentöse Behandlung der Adipositas möglich.

Metropolitan Life Insurance, , zitiert nach Wirth, ; Manson et al. Da bei so ausgeprägtem Übergewicht die konservativen Therapiemöglichkeiten in vielen Fällen keine ausreichende Gewichtssenkung erlauben, wurden alternativ chirurgische Therapieformen entwickelt.

Unter ökonomischen Gesichtspunkten könnten nach ersten Studien die Kosten für die chirurgische Therapie der Adipositas Grad III niedriger ausfallen als die Kosten unter konservativer Therapie Martin et al.

Die Patientenauswahl sollte nach strengen Kriterien erfolgen National Institute of Health Consensus Development Conference, ; SIGN, , Evidenzklasse IV, Empfehlungsgrad C.

Risikofaktoren haben. Verfahren der Wahl sind derzeit Magenverkleinerungstechniken wie die vertikale Gastroplastik nach Mason und die Silikonbandtechnik nach Kuzmak, die laparoskopisch durchgeführt werden kann siehe u.

Husemann et al. Langfristige Gewichtsstabilisierung Das Hauptproblem jeder Adipositastherapie ist die Stabilisierung des reduzierten Körpergewichts.

Daher bewirkt die Rückkehr zur früheren Ernährung nach einer hypokalorischen Kost eine rasche Gewichtszunahme Porikos et al.

Dieser Effekt kann Stand: Es handelt sich dabei allerdings um keine randomisierten, kontrollierten Studien.

Von zentraler Bedeutung für eine langfristige Gewichtsstabilisierung hat sich die Fortführung des Kontaktes zwischen Therapeut und Patient erwiesen.

Insgesamt hängt das Langzeitergebnis des Gewichtsmanagements von einem geplanten, langfristigen Betreuungskonzept ab. Kriterien für den Behandlungserfolg Voraussetzung für einen Behandlungserfolg ist eine realistische Zielsetzung.

Adipöse Patienten und auch medizinisches Personal streben häufig als Hauptziel das Erreichen des Ideal- oder Normalgewichts an SIGN, Diesbezüglich ist ein Umdenken auf Seiten des Therapeuten und des Patienten erforderlich.

Rauchen, eingeplant werden. Wenn einem Patienten der Rat gegeben wird, das Rauchen aufzugeben, sollte daher gleichzeitig ein Gewichtsmanagement-Programm angeboten werden.

Im Fall einer signifikanten Gewichtszunahme sollte zusätzlich eine gezielte Reduktionskost initiiert werden SIGN, ; Evidenzklasse IV.

Übergewicht und Adipositas im Kindes und Jugendalter Bezüglich der Klassifizierung von Übergewicht und Adipositas im Kindesalter besteht zur Zeit im Vergleich zu Erwachsenen weniger Übereinstimmung.

Bei Kindern korreliert der BMI stärker mit dem Alter als bei Erwachsenen: der BMI steigt während des ersten Lebensjahres stark an, fällt während der Vorschulzeit und steigt wieder bis zum Erwachsenenalter an WHO Übergewicht und Adipositas im Kindesalter sind Risikofaktoren für die Entwicklung von Übergewicht und Adipositas im Erwachsenenalter Whitaker et al.

Diese Wirkung scheint unabhängig von den Folgen des Übergewichtes und der Adipositas im Erwachsenenalter zu sein Dietz, ; Must et al. Da eine adäquate Ernährung essentiell für normales Wachstum ist, empfiehlt die WHO nur eine geringe Reduktion der Nahrungszufuhr.

Es sollte individuell abgewogen werden, Übergewicht und Adipositas im Kindesalter zu behandeln. Auch bei der Behandlung übergewichtiger oder adipöser Kinder kommen die Komponenten des Basisprogramms mit Modifikationen in Betracht Williams et al.

Die Steigerung der körperlichen Aktivität sollte im Vergleich zur Ernährungsumstellung stärker im Vordergrund stehen Epstein, b, Evidenzklasse IV, Empfehlungsgrad C.

Anhang Risikofaktoren-Management, z. Aufgabe des Rauchens; gesunder Lebensstil Gewichtsmonitoring, RisikofaktorenManagement, Therapie der Komorbidität, Beratung zu gesundem Lebens1 stil Verhinderung einer weiteren Gewichtszunahme, besser noch Gewichtsreduzierung Basisprogramm Dauerhafte Gewichtsreduzierung v.

Komorbidi2,3 tät 2 Wenn kein Erfolg, frühestens nach 12 Wochen zusätzliche medikamenöse Therapie erwägen Adipositas Grad II BMI Die ausgesprochenen Handlungsemfehlungen der Grade A bis C wurden anhand der Evidenzklassen gewichtet.

Für das stufenweise Vorgehen beim Übergewicht und einzelner Grade der Adipositas sowie beim Management von Risikofaktoren dienten Empfehlungen der SIGN , des Royal College of Physicians und der WHO Überweisung an den Spezialisten z.

Gewichtsmanagement: 1. Adjuvante medikamtentöse Therapie: Die zwei in Frage kommenden Substanzen, Sibutramin und Orlistat, befinden sich noch im Zulassungsverfahren bzw.

Ökonomische Aspekte der Adipositas in Deutschland Methodik der Kostenschätzung In den Industrienationen erlangt die Adipositas aufgrund ihrer steigenden Prävalenz und ihren schwerwiegenden Begleit- und Folgeerkrankungen zunehmend an gesundheitspolitischer Bedeutung.

Die adipositas-assoziierten Krankheitskosten belasten nicht nur die Sozialversicherungsträger, sondern auch die Patienten und ihre Angehörigen.

Krankheitskosten-Studien sind für die Entscheidungsträger im Gesundheitswesen insofern von Bedeutung, als sie die Verteilung der verbrauchten Ressourcen und damit die auf die einzelnen Krankheiten entfallenden Kosten verdeutlichen.

Auf der Basis der krankheitsspezifischen Daten über Prävalenz und Inanspruchnahmeverhalten kann beispielsweise beurteilt werden, ob ein neues effektives Therapiekonzept zu Kosteneinsparungen führt.

Hierzu zählen zum einen der Verbrauch von Gesundheitsleistungen und -gütern, z. Zu erfassen ist hierbei auch: geringere berufliche Aufstiegschancen, Zeitaufwand der Anhörigen für die Versorgung des erkrankten Angehörigen.

In den bislang durchgeführten Krankheitskosten-Studien vgl. Kapitel 4. Die Kosten, die im privaten Bereich oder für die Angehörigen entstehen, wurden ebenso wenig quantifiziert wie die intangiblen Kosten.

Personalkosten bei Beratungs- und Gruppensitzungen. Dies impliziert eine systematische Unterschätzung der adipositasbedingten Kosten. Die meisten Krankheitskosten-Studien basieren auf dem Prävalenzansatz.

Dabei werden alle direkten und indirekten Kosten dem Jahr zugerechnet, in dem sie aufgrund der Prävalenz der jeweiligen Krankheit und ihrer Folgen entstanden sind, unabhängig vom Beginn der Erkrankung.

Des weiteren gibt es noch den Inzidenzansatz, bei dem nur die Kosten derjenigen Krankheitsfälle berücksichtigt werden, die in dem jeweiligen Berichtsjahr erstmalig festgestellt worden sind.

Für diese Krankheitsfälle sowie ihre Folgen werden die direkten und indirekten Kosten bis zur Hei- Stand: Dieses Studiendesign eignet sich zur Evaluation von Präventionsstrategien sowie alternativen Diagnose-, Therapie- und Rehabilitationsverfahren.

Demgegenüber vermitteln Studien nach dem Prävalenzansatz ein umfassendes Bild über die volkswirtschaftlichen Kosten einer Krankheit.

Kritik ist am Humankapitalansatz insofern zu üben, als er Nicht-Erwerbstätige z. Kinder, Rentner, Hausfrauen und Empfänger niedriger Einkommen diskriminiert.

Des weiteren impliziert eine Arbeitsunfähigkeit bei chronischer Arbeitslosigkeit, d. Für West-Deutschland wurden die Kosten ernährungsabhängiger Krankheiten in einer vom Bundesministerium für Gesundheit in Auftrag gegebene Analyse für das Jahr BMG, geschätzt.

Dabei handelt es sich um einen Top-down-Ansatz, d. Für die neuen Bundesländer konnten die krankheitsspezifischen Kosten nur geschätzt werden, indem die Ergebnisse der alten Bundesländer bevölkerungsabhängig auf die neuen Bundesländer extrapoliert wurden.

Es handelt sich dabei um einen Prävalenzansatz, in dem die relativen bzw. I: Adipositas-bezogene Kosten in Deutschland - ohne Berücksichtigung von Komorbiditäten BMG, Adipositas Kosten in Mill.

DM Direkte Kosten ambulante Behandlung Arzneien, Heil- und Hilfsmittel stationäre Behandlung stationäre Kurbehandlung gesamt Indirekte Kosten infolge Mortalität infolge Arbeitsunfähigkeit infolge Invalidität gesamt Gesamtkosten West-Deutschland Ost-Deutschland 1 69 62 97 67 17 44 33 93 Das relative Risiko dient der Quantifizierung des Zusammenhangs zwischen Adipositas und Folgekrankheiten und wird bestimmt, indem die Erkrankungsraten in Relation zueinander gesetzt werden.

Der sich ergebende Faktor gibt an, um wieviel höher oder niedriger das Erkrankungsrisiko einer Personengruppe mit Adipositas ist gegenüber einer Personengruppe, bei der diese Exposition nicht vorliegt.

Ein relatives Risiko von kleiner bzw. Anhand dieses Faktors sind Angaben darüber möglich, welcher Prozentsatz an Erkrankungen in der Bevölkerung auf die Adipositas zurückzuführen ist.

Da nicht alle Komorbiditäten der Adipositas berücksichtigt wurden, handelt es sich um eine konservative Kostenschätzung. Zudem können die zugrundegelegten Prävalenz-Daten zu einer Unterschätzung der attributablen Risiken führen.

Während im Modell I eine vorsichtige Schätzung der relativen und attributablen Risiken zugrunde gelegt wird, basiert das Modell II auf höheren, aus der Literatur bekannten Werten.

Die aus den beiden Modellvarianten resultierenden Kostenschätzungen sind in Tabelle III dargestellt. In Abhängigkeit von den Modellannahmen ergeben sich - bezogen auf das Jahr - für die Adipositas und ihre Komorbiditäten Kosten zwischen 11,1 Mrd.

DM und 19,3 Mrd. Da die Ergebnisse auf den vom Bundesministerium für Gesundheit geschätzten Kosten basieren, unterliegen sie den bereits angeführten Fehlermöglichkeiten.

Insbesondere stellen die Kosten für die neuen Bundesländer nur eine sehr grobe Schätzung dar. Weitere Unsicherheiten resultieren aus den in der Untersuchung von Infratest zugrunde gelegten Annahmen.

Aufgrund dieser Fehlermöglichkeiten wurde eine Bandbreite für die Kosten der Adipositas berechnet. III Adipositas-bezogene Kosten in Deutschland - unter Berücksichtigung der wichtigsten Komorbiditäten Schneider, Modell Variante Adipositasprävalenz Stand: Nach dieser Rechnung ergeben sich geschätzte Kosten für zwischen 15,5 Mrd.

DM und 27,1 Mrd. DM - in Abhängigkeit von der verwendeten Modellvariante. Darüber hinaus wurde in der Studie versucht, die vermeidbaren Kosten der Adipositas in Deutschland zu schätzen.

DM eingespart werden können. Internationaler Kostenvergleich Die Kosten der Adipositas wurden auch für andere Länder auf der Basis des Prävalenzansatzes geschätzt.

Der internationale Vergleich zeigt dabei relativ gute Übereinstimmungen, d. In dieser Studie, die den Ausgangspunkt für viele der nachfolgenden Analysen darstellt, wurden die direkten und indirekten Kosten der Adipositas für das Jahr mit Hilfe eines Prävalenzansatzes berechnet.

Dabei wurden folgende Komorbiditäten in die Schätzungen einbezogen: TypDiabetes mellitus, KHK, Bluthochdruck, Gallenblasenerkrankungen, Brust- und Darmkrebs.

Diese Studie basierte nicht auf dem Prävalenzansatz, sondern auf einem Vergleich von Übergewichtigen mit Normalgewichtigen hinsichtlich der Inanspruchnahme ambulanter und stationärer Einrichtungen sowie Verschreibungen von Diuretika und HerzKreislauf-Präparaten Seidell et al.

Die indirekten Kosten wurden nur annähernd bestimmt. Insgesamt ist die Kostenschätzung dieser Studie — ebenso wie die französische - als konservativ zu bezeichnen, da nicht alle Komorbiditäten sowie nur ein Teil der Gesundheitsleistungen einbezogen werden konnten.

In Tabelle IV sind die Ergebnisse der internationalen Studien zusammenfassend dargestellt. Literatur Recherchierte Literatur 1. Abate N.

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ISSN ed. The tremolando sacrifices these possibilities in the interests of maintaining atmosphere. The lower strings must allow the first violin its tune, but their support must also ensure that the continuity is not broken.

One of the most notable. Almost the only rhythmic respite comes from the return of the opening gesture; now the chords go minor-major, there are no athletic dots, no tremolando.

Is there a simple equation that identifies minor as disruptive, major as placatory? The coda provides some sort of answer.

Schubert follows his usual path in the slow movement. That is, he gives us a beautiful tune, throws everything against it, and beauty eventually wins out.

Two refinements of this procedure deserve mention. An abrupt but constant two-note figure on violin and viola is pitted against a changing series of tremolando chords on all four instruments.

Perhaps unexpectedly, the abrupt little figure actually wins — the poet bends the world to his will. The second refinement is that much of the beauty of the tune is enshrined in the timbre of the cello, playing high on the A string and always the original minor version of the tune.

The first violin is allowed a version in the tonic major E major and even in the dominant minor, but E minor is strictly reserved for the cello.

The Scherzo and finale proceed almost entirely in small gestures and at high speed. Time again we glimpse the spirit of Haydn, who knew very well what marvels could be conjured from repeated notes on strings.

To gain an impression of the atmosphere at the time we can take a look at the Congress of Vienna that this statesman organised in Aristocracy and statesmen from all over Europe were in attendance, accompanied by their wives and courtiers.

The meetings were not only political. There was also entertainment in the form of balls and concerts. The whole affair took place in the upper echelons of society— a small, privileged group.

No-one would have noticed Franz Schubert. One composer who did make an impression was the previously mentioned Johann Nepomuk Hummel. He composed countless waltzes for the gala evenings of the Congress.

They were lightweight pieces that were quickly forgotten. Not so fleeting was the Piano Septet op. The work was performed often and was discussed in leading newspapers.

Hummel arranged the work for piano quintet in the same year, using the combination of violin, viola, cello, bass and fortepiano. The arrangement was given the same opus number, Hummel had previously composed a quintet for this combination in the Piano Quintet in E-flat.

This work was not published until , under the opus number In Schubert found himself broke, once again. Schubert stayed with a local lawyer.

Once back in Vienna, Schubert set to work and the result was an extensive, fivemovement work. The parts were copied by Stadler, a friend of Schubert,.

Schubert was 22 when he composed the Trout Quintet. During his lifetime only a few of his songs, some dance music, and a few works for piano duet were published.

He wrote to publishers and sent them his quintet but there was little interest in the unknown composer. The Trout Quintet was finally published in , but sadly its composer had already been dead for a year.

The work opens with a grand, slow introduction to a strongly rhythmic Allegro. In the calm, slow movement the main theme is heard on the pastoral clarinet, accompanied by the strings.

The third movement, Allegro vivace, is a scherzo with contrasting trio. It is followed by a menuet and trio, the latter suggesting a folk dance.

The finale also has a slow introduction. The lively Allegro that follows is interrupted shortly before the end by a little drama based on material from the first movement.

Should any of these compositions by any chance commend themselves to you, please let me know. The instrumentation is reminiscent of Onslow, who used a double bass in some of his quintets.

Most string quintets follow the example of Mozart and add a second viola to the conventional make-up of a string quartet; Schubert, like Boccherini before him, replaced the second viola with a second cello for enhanced richness in the lower register.

In common with other late works of Schubert e. The second movement is in three-part ABA form. The outer sections, in E major, are of an otherworldly tranquility.

The central section is intensely turbulent; it enters in the unrelated key of F minor. When the opening music returns, there is a running demisemiquaver passage in the second cello which seems to have been motivated by the turbulence that came before it.

In the last three measures of the movement, Schubert somehow contrives to tie the entire movement together harmonically with a quick, brilliant modulation to the F minor of the middle section and an immediate return to E major.

The Scherzo is symphonic in scale, with the open strings of the lower instruments generating a volume of sound seemingly beyond the capabilities of five stringed instruments.

The trio of this movement is an unearthly slow march that seems to anticipate the sound world of Mahler. The last movement is an exuberant rondo with clear Hungarian influences.

PIANO SONATAS CDCD26 Sonata in B flat D - Sonata in B major D, Duo CD 19 Although the last three Sonatas D, D and D are dated as being completed in September , they were undoubtedly written over a period somewhat longer than a single month.

By this time, Schubert was in the final stages of an extreme illness probably syphilis which had ravaged his health both physically and mentally to a state of what physicians of the day referred to as Nervenfieber.

The innovations in the final works undoubtedly owe something to this state of mental ill health, just as such an illness would affect, for example, the later works of a philosopher such as Nietzsche or indeed the composer Schumann a little later on.

In September, Schubert had been advised to move and stay with his brother Ferdinand rather than be alone.

It is thus, that the final Sonatas are something of a testament to his final mental and physical state of mind and represent triumph of his art against such total adversity.

Schubert did indeed take the Septet as his model, writing the same number of movements but only adding a second violin to the ensemble.

The Octet for string quartet plus double bass, clarinet, bassoon and horn was composed in February and March The B flat Sonata is the last of the three great final Sonatas and it is in many ways the most personal and perhaps serene and melancholy of all.

It is a summation of what has gone before and the first movement, marked for once unusually, Molto Moderato is at once a departure from the normal type of fast movement opening as well as being on a disproportionately large scale - it takes almost half the length in time of the whole Sonata.

Again there is that unique quality of sudden pauses in the music which punctuate the melody, there are worrying trills disturbing the bass line and there is a violent section before the recapitulation.

Beethoven is again never far from Schubert's inspiration here, nor too is the final movement from Schubert's own previous Sonata. As in the Quintet for Strings D of the same year, the second movement of the Sonata is slow moving, almost static producing a feeling of other-worldliness.

It is based on ternary form with a second subject that seems to promise more substantive hope. An extremely brief Scherzo movement follows marked to be played con delicatezza with delicacy , and that is the key to a movement which remains softly spoken; there is a brief Trio section, somewhat more worldly with some strangely disturbing left hand work.

Finally, the Rondo Allegro ma non troppo filled with tunes and mad joy leads to a remarkable coda with a fast crescendo to its concluding bars.

The early B major Sonata despite a composition date of August is a remarkably free piece both in its formal aspects and its treatment of tonality.

Of the series of Sonatas, it is also the only one that can be considered to be complete. It begins imposingly with threes in the bass line and dotted rhythms above before rising to G major for a new and highly Romantic section.

Heroic ascents and converse descents together with a march theme shape the movement. The following slow movement is a simple Andante in ternary form with a violent central section; it begins with simple three beats to the bar but surprisingly ends with the extraordinary change to four beats in the bar.

A Scherzo follows or is it a Minuet and Trio, with a second section based in B flat major? The wit and good humour of the Minuet section is a particularly felicitous invention which almost makes the whole work into a minor masterpiece.

A final, witty and playful Allegro giusto brings the work to a close with a strongly rhythmic finale.

Diabelli as Editor often interfered with other composer's autographs and his retitling of the Allegro is a typical example of his tampering.

This is a highly intense piece ranging from passionate outbursts to intense calm and is written in Sonata form thus suggesting that perhaps it could have been intended as the first movement of an incomplete Sonata.

The second subject, noble and almost religious, somehow pre-empts the slow movements of Bruckner years later.

Sonata in A major D - Sonata in E minor D CD20 Summation of all the keyboard works, Schubert's last three Sonatas D, D and D were completed in September , although they were undoubtedly written over a period somewhat longer than a single month.

By now, Schubert was in the final stages of his mysterious illness described by his Doctors as a fever of the nerves, common parlance for many severe complaints at the time but most likely for syphilis, although no documentation exists for when and where or indeed if from man or woman the composer first caught the infection.

Syphilis was however common in the period and whatever the disease was, it had plagued his health both physically and mentally for a long time and was certainly by now in its final stages.

Such severe illness undoubtedly had an effect on the final works and they must owe something to this state of mental ill health and the insights that such sufferings can bring to an artist above and beyond the physical limitations.

By September, Schubert had moved in with his brother Ferdinand for some sort of support, rather than be left alone. These three final Sonatas make up a testament and represent the triumph of the composer's art against such adversity.

The late A major Sonata D serves as a complete opposite to the preceding Sonata in C minor D; this is a bright and secure work, more lyrical than tumultuous.

Beginning with a rather majestic chorale, a cascade of triplets follow before the opening motif returns. There is a second subject in the key of E major leading to the development and then a final coda which seems almost contemplative.

The Andantino which follows begins with a song like melody firmly in F sharp minor and then, surprisingly for such a gentle opening, explodes into one of the wildest outbursts in all of Schubert - this may well be accounted for by the imbalances in the composer's mental state at the time but remains for all that musically almost shocking.

The conventional third movement Scherzo follows in the usual ternary form. The opening section is bright and skipping with lyrical moments to the fore in the Trio section, marked as it is un poco piu lento.

Finally, the work concludes with an Allegretto of some length. This is a text-book Sonata-Rondo movement with it's theme taken from one of Schubert's earlier pieces - the slow movement of the Sonata in A minor D If this all sounds rather too obvious, the result is quite different; the borrowed theme is expanded and sustains its interest throughout the movement finally leading back to a concluding restatement of the opening of the work in the last few bars - almost a symphonic conclusion.

In June , Schubert finished his E minor Sonata D although officially only two movements exist - a third movement was added later.

In fact, the first movement was published on its own in , the second then in and the disputed third in The opening Moderato is melodious enough but seems to lack purpose and shows that attempts at Sonata form are as yet not quite successful; there is a mixture of happiness and sadness but the one fortissimo climax of the work lacks any true sense of progress.

The second movement is equally unsatisfactory although it has certain moments of charm. The disputed third movement is a Scherzo with references in its D flat major trio section that seem again to hark back to earlier pieces by Mozart.

Sonata in C minor D - Moments Musicaux D CD21 All of Schubert's last three Sonatas bear the date September although they were probably written over a period of longer than just one month.

Nowhere in his whole output is the debt to Beethoven more apparent than here and this is particularly true in the C minor Sonata, where not only the.

In addition, it must be remembered that by this time, Schubert was extremely ill and indeed moved to stay with his brother Ferdinand at the beginning of September.

The final Sonatas are thus something of a testament to his final mental and physical state of mind and represent triumph of his art against such total adversity.

The first of the series sets the scene for a new treatment of the piano, not so much as a solo instrument as a full orchestra.

Beginning in a massive way reminiscent of Beethoven, the opening Allegro is a large scale piece in all ways which yet manages to move into new territory and a dissolution to an extent of tonality far removed from the bravura of earlier pages.

The second movement is the only true Adagio in the three late Sonatas and a reminder of the moods from Schubert's last great song cycle Winterreise and although the references to Beethoven are not as obvious as the quotations in the first movement, the homage is here equally evident.

For his third movement, Schubert chooses the title of Minuet, already an anachronism perhaps by this time but the piece is marked Allegro and tends towards a Scherzo without too much of the sense of jokery.

At times, Schubert amazes the listener by inserting silences into this shortest of movements but the trio section seems to reassure again towards a sense of near normality.

The Moments Musicaux which compose D are short pieces written between and Two were published in an annual musical almanac whilst the third was published separately in and the sixth in although when the others were actually composed is unknown.

They last from less than a mere two minutes to something around seven and are generally thought of as lightweight works that would have been suitable for playing by the composer at one of those social gatherings that filled Vienna at the time, be they for amateur artists or more artistically challenging.

Some of the soirees may even have been far more than just social meetings and it has even been suggested that the parties may have been opportunities for meetings of a homosexual subculture of the city to which Schubert may have been a member himself.

There is something almost balletic about these pieces and they tend towards the same three part form as do the two sets of Impromptus.

The first is in C major and is a reflection on a minuet with trio. The second is in an extended temary form or rondo and contains variants of the first section on each of its appearances as well as a startling change from A flat major to F sharp minor, another key to some of Schubert's extremely advanced ideas on tonality.

The third piece was originally called an Air Russe Russian Air when first published in December and bears resemblance to not only a Russian dance but to some of the earlier music which Schubert had composed for the unsuccessful stage play of Rosamunde, Furstin von Zypern.

The influence of the Bohemian tradition was felt strongly by Schubert and the fourth piece is a reflection of that, perhaps the Trio is a hint at such a national echo whereas there is something resembling earlier times with even a hint of Bach in the outer sections.

Number Four's Moderato marking is followed by a quick change to an Allegro Vivace for the succeeding brief and pressed vigour of the Fifth piece.

Finally there is a change from F minor to the major key of A flat for the somewhat strangely titled Plaintes d'un troubadour which concludes the series.

This is, like the opening piece, a basic Minuet and Trio making up the longest of the Moments and expressing a sense of sadness with some surprising key changes between the major and minor.

Publication of the Moments Musicaux had to wait until July and like the late Impromptus, these are pieces which express the immediate appeal of Schubert's piano music, even when the composer was plagued by the.

They too represent the wide ranging inspiration of the composer in those final months when compared to the last three great piano sonatas that were to follow.

Sonata in D D - Sonata in A flat D - Sonata in C D "Relique" CD22 Generally, it would seem only natural that composers of keyboard works should compose directly at the keyboard itself, but it may well be that at times in his life, Schubert was not always able to follow this procedure.

He certainly did own or have access to pianos during his lifetime, but sometimes Schubert's financial difficulties or changes of lodgings may have led to periods when he had no access to an instrument and composed in his head.

Added to a deteriorating and distressing illness and state of mental and physical health, the composer's keyboard and indeed other works came about often from uniquely adverse conditions for any musician.

Trips to the various mountain resorts of Austria often inspired Schubert to a flurry of composition on his return and the D major Sonata D is a result of the composer's trip to the Austrian Spa town of Bad Gastein in the summer of , the trip which resulted also in Schubert's last completed symphony, the Great C major.

Within its opening Allegro movement, Schubert manages to pass his music through all twelve keys whilst keeping momentum up with a tempo of two in the bar rather than four and even adding some seemingly incongruous folksy elements.

The slow movement combines mystery and beauty within a Rondo form together with a joyful and dancing sense of escape to better times.

The music is some of Schubert's most attractive and builds to a huge climax before its return to the second subject. The following Scherzo is almost something of a Bohemian folk dance to begin with, then moves up to B-flat before turning itself into a genial Landler.

After what is a lengthy Scherzo, the final rondo is a piece of lightness and grace, the principal theme changing and then becoming ever more fluid until it finally melts away.

This was the time of the Sixth Symphony and Schubert's deepening friendship with the Romantic and melancholic poet Mayrhofer who was to have such influence on the young composer, particularly in his songs.

The A flat Sonata D was composed in May and is something of a modest work, even managing to hark back to the Baroque era and perhaps imitating a style of writing for the harpsichord.

The opening Allegro moderato movement is in strict Sonata form and has a distinct echo of Mozart about it with little to show that it is a work of Schubert's, full of charm but little imagination.

Despite the tuneful nature of the second subject, the final movement is not only dubious as it is in E flat an unlikely key for a finale here but is little more than a rather tuneful dance.

Whatever the final verdict may be and whether indeed, this is the complete music for a Sonata as Schubert envisaged it, this early piece is an agreeable throwback to earlier times.

The strange title given to the C major Sonata D dates from the publication of the piece in in Leipzig after a circuitous journey via the hands of Ferdinand Schubert and Robert Schumann.

The Sonata is indeed unfinished, like several other works by the composer, for the reasons that Schubert ran into difficulties at various points in the score.

It appears that he may have intended to return to the piece and use it for the third of a series of Grandes Sonates from Whatever the case, the Reliquie is a substantial fragment predating the Great C major Symphony by just a few months.

The opening movement is not overburdened by thematic material and proceeds at a leisurely pace - the second subject being even marked ligato smoothly.

The following development features Schubertian triplets before seemingly melting into the recapitulation without being noticed. The coda reviews the first subject in a broad and truly symphonic climax.

The slow movement is marked Andante and takes the form of a Rondo but with many small silences in the music, something that would be developed in the later Sonatas but had been already apparent in the very first.

The third movement planned was to be a Minuet with Trio, but although the central trio section was completed, Schubert failed to finish off what would apparently have been a rather daring re-invention of the Minuet.

Expectations of the generally high standards of the first two movements are however disappointed by what remains of the final movement.

This appears to have been intended as another Rondo or Sonata Rondo but Schubert's manuscript breaks off after some rather uninspired bars.

Sonata in G major D - Sonata in A minor D CD23 The fate of the artist and his surroundings is nowhere so clearly drawn as in the life of Franz Schubert.

Beginnings of promise and successful relationships with friends and a growing public were somehow cut short by an illness that was to shape the rest of his life.

Nowhere can this two part life and two part career be better seen than in Schubert's piano Sonatas; the year marks the line between what was Schubert's period of early and late Sonatas.

Much of the music before was written for social occasions, Schubertiads as they became known and there are a succession of short pieces for the piano - Minuets, Waltzes, Ecossaises, Ländler and German Dances.

There are early Sonatas too, often imitating the mood and the style of Haydn and Mozart as well as a rich legacy of Classical Symphonies which still hold a place in the repertory today.

After , however, Schubert was a man very much alone with his sickness. Schubert was by no means an extrovert and his illness probably syphilis with its progressive degeneration led him more and more into his inner self.

That inner self and delving further into the possibilities of music and art meant a new approach to Sonata form after the crisis, culminating in the three last great works of but bringing before them other major works which manage to take the form even beyond the possibilities of Beethoven's final works.

The two Sonatas on this recording show the progress Schubert had made or was about to make at this later date. The A minor work dates from that crucial year of whilst the later G major piece comes from three years later in The Sonata in G major D was dedicated to Schubert's friend Josef von Spaun, a Government official and the founder of the Schubert circle.

It was published first in by Haslinger where it appeared under the title of Fantaisie, Andante, Menuetto et Allegretto although within the covers of the printed edition it bears the title of Fantasy or Sonata.

Unlike many of Schubert's works in the medium, this movement is also different in that it fails to make too many modulations and has a singing quality perhaps in tune with its description as a Fantasy and its marking of cantabile.

The slow movement that follows is marked Andante and consists of gentle opening and closing sections with a more dramatic central part.

The movement is cast in the ternary form favoured so much by the composer. After these two subdued movements, the normal Scherzo of the Sonatas becomes here a conventional Menuetto in B minor with a particularly enchanting Trio in B major at a speed of Allegro moderato.

Finally, the last movement is a customary Rondo, most happy in its inspiration and with a central episode which leads into a charmingly simple melody firstly in the minor key then leading back to a repetition of the Rondo and the coda.

The A minor Sonata D follows after a four year gap from its predecessor, the Sonata in A major D The intervening years had seen the composition of the Quartetsatz and the Unfinished Symphony and.

Completed in February , it is in three movements with an exceptionally lengthy opening movement some three times the length of each of the following.

This Allegro giusto begins with a theme given out in octaves before the appearance of a second subject sometimes interrupted by moments of fortissimo leading to a development and recapitulation and coda still maintaining the elemental play of dynamics in the movement.

The following Andante is a compact and poetic piece with almost an ability to stand on its own whilst the concluding Allegro Vivace features a headlong rush and aIternate lyrical passages.

The piece ends in a final coda of pure virtuosity with fast octave figurations recalling the octaves of the opening of the initial Allegro giusto.

If there are echoes of the later Brahms in the slow movement, then it is perhaps Beethoven who shows his face in the Finale once again. Sonata in A minor D - Sonata in A D Drei Klavierstücke D CD24 Anyone trying to continue the tradition of the keyboard Sonata after the works of Haydn, Mozart and particularly Beethoven, was faced with difficulties of the most extreme kind.

It may have seemed that a work such as Beethoven's Opus, to mention only one of the composer's late pieces in the genre, had already said all that could be said without the creation of a new form or perhaps a new instrument.

Schubert persevered over a period of thirteen years from until his death in and against all odds, created a further life and a remarkable development for the Sonata as well as producing shorter piano pieces of exquisite beauty and amazing technical innovation.

The present recording somehow shows those innovations within the timespan, beginning with two early Sonatas and contrasting the late Klavierstücke. The Sonata, D in A major, comes from a much earlier period in Schubert's life and dates from , some nine years before the final works.

It is consequently, a simpler work, much easier to play than many of the later keyboard pieces, although this by no means suggests that even in these earlier works, Schubert's development of the Sonata form was not ready to break with convention and extend the limits.

Indeed this Sonata is in many ways perhaps the first of the characteristically mature keyboard works of the composer. By , Schubert had had a major success with his opera Die Zwillingsbrüder which had improved his financial situation with a fee of Florins, part paid on account by July.

It was not the relatively unknown operatic work that inspired Schubert at this point, rather a trip he made to the mountains of Upper Austria with his friend Johann Michael Vogl, a baritone who was responsible for the succes of many of Schubert's songs.

The holiday lasted until mid-September when the friends'returned to Vienna, refreshed and filled by the inspiration of the Alpine landscapes.

The inspiration of that brush with nature and the contentment rising from meetings of friends and admirers directly produced the Trout Quintet and the A major Sonata written as it was for Josefine von Koller, an innkeeper's daughter he had met in Steyr.

This shortest of all the Sonatas begins with an Allegro movement with a particularly leisurely first subject which gives rise to a second subject initially in the same key - Schubert defying convention.

There is little in the way of drama in this opening movement other than a momentary outburst in the development. Similarly, the slow movement joins its two themes together and we are in the world of Mozart rather than Beethoven, elegant and gracious but not without a certain sense of gravity.

Unusually again, the Sonata contains neither Minuet nor Scherzo but moves instead straight from Andante into a final full scale Allegro. The A minor Sonata D dates from and is the first of three Sonatas that Schubert composed in that key.

The finest inspiration in this piece comes from the first of the three movements. It unusually peters out in an imaginative codetta that becomes ever quieter.

Of all Schubert's late short pieces, the Impromptus from are some of the most appealing and their success, not surprisingly, suggested to the composer the possibility of another set in These Drei Klavierstucke followed in May and were composed only months before Schubert's death in November of that year.

The three pieces remain untitled in the composer's autograph and the first two exist only in draft whilst the third is a pencil sketch. The opening piece is a Rondo-Scherzo beginning in E flat minor and with a particularly lovely second section.

Similarly, a Rondo makes up the second of the pieces which has alternate fast sections preceded by a slow opening section.

Finally, a C major Allegro rounds off the set with homage to Beethoven in the faster sections contrasted to a truly Schubertian slow section and a vital coda.

Sonata in A minor D - Sonata in E major D CD25 The ideals of Sonata form are deeply rooted in the Classical period and are generally to be found in the first movements of Symphonies and Sonatas themselves as well as often appeilring in other movements of an extended composition.

The form is already being used by Scarlatti and his contemporaries in Italy in the early eighteenth century, although those works are far away from what was to become the classical three or four movement work.

Generally Sonata form in its Classical manifestation consists of three principal parts - the Exposition, Development and finally Recapitulation with often a short ending referred to as a Coda.

The opening Exposition will normally consist of two contrasting themes which are then worked out and modified in the Development and presented again in the Recapitulation.

Scarlatti wrote well over five hundred of these single movement works but the three or four movement pieces more familiar to Classical and Romantic music developed from the substantial collections by Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.

It was this now considerable legacy that Schubert faced with adding to and possibly extending the range of. No easy task after the colossal works of Beethoven's late period.

Schubert begins with almost homages to Mozart and Haydn but then progresses to challenge those late Beethoven works in his own final period.

Whilst Schubert's output of Sonatas is considerably less in number than Scarlatti's, his works are substantially longer, making up some of the longest single movements in the genre.

It is impossible to say how many Sonatas Schubert originally envisaged, some are left incomplete, some just a single movement and some even unsure whether they were written as genre pieces or as an attempt at a start to a complete Sonata.

The first of the group D in E major was begun in and the last three complete works appeared in September , the final year of the composer's short life.

In between are nearly twenty works divided by a break in composition of four years between and The A minor Sonata D originates from the Spring of , just a month after he gave up work on the incomplete C major Reliquie Sonata D This is a lengthy work with a particularly substantial opening and second movement, a somewhat shorter third movement Scherzo and a surprisingly brief final movement.

The opening Moderato begins in octaves, leading to a crescendo which gives way to a new theme and a rapid exchange of ideas.

There are many unexpected moments and ideas here before one of Schubert's lengthiest coda sections brings the movement back to a close on its keynote.

Things considerably lighten up with the lengthy set of five variations on a C major theme that make up the following Andante con moto.

At one point in the series there is a move to C minor and after a peaceful passage in that key a series of perhaps unexpected dissonances move the emotional temperature up several notches.

Next comes the Scherzo with its simple and folksy Trio section. Finally, the Allegro Vivace is in the favoured last movement form of a Rondo in A minor with two closely related themes and a hint of the Hungarian style.

One of the very early Sonatas, D in E major was composed in August , the year of Schubert's first attempt at an opera - Die Bürgschaft, and the fourth and fifth symphonies as well as a major year for song composition with around one hundred Lieder settings.

This was also a time when Schubert was much under the influence of Salieri, Mozart's rival and his influence can perhaps still be traced in this five movement work.

The piece was originally published as Fünf Klavierstücke in although this belies the fact that the individual movements do seem to make up a whole.

The opening movement is compact and bears echoes of Beethoven. The second movement is an Allegretto in E major which serves as the first of the two Scherzo movements that this five part structure entails.

Central to the Sonata is the following rather Italianate Adagio with its restrained lyricism. The fourth movement, unlike the second, is marked as a Scherzo con trio; a light opening section with Schubert specifically indicating the trio in D major to be played at a slower speed.

The concluding movement has the unusual marking of Allegro patetico although it seems more dramatic than pathetic.

Whatever Schubert may have meant by his strange description of a fast final movement, this is a virtuoso conclusion to a by no means conventional early Sonata.

Much neglected during his life time, his symphonies were never performed in his lifetime and not even published until many years after his death.

Schubert was not a virtuoso performer himself and his attempts at promoting his works were usually confined to the Schubertiads, evenings in private houses where he would try out songs and short pieces for the entertainment of the guests.

Within these small circles the music was unable to travel and find a wider public like that of Mozart or Beethoven had done.

Much indebted to the music of Beethoven, Schubert's piano Sonatas often show this influence. Schubert was the last of the great keyboard composers who not only continued the tradition of the Sonata but was also able to add to it despite the rigours of the form itself.

This is particularly noticeable in the later works, written after and most of all in the three last Sonatas of his final year. The opening movement is indeed an Allegro moderato in Sonata form.

Dating from , this movement is often succeeded by an Andante D and a Scherzo and Finale D although the final part is unfinished.

The opening movement owes something to Beethoven's Moonlight Sonata and is a remarkably flowing piece which eschews the usual dramatic contrasts that the form implies - the bars of the movement are almost entirely marked pianissimo.

The finale as it appears here is related to the opening movement and makes a suitable companion piece with its Schubertian hallmarks of harmonic progressions and triplet figures.

The C major Sonata D is another unfinished work and dates from April Fragments of the first and final movements are extant and sometimes an Adagio in E major written at the same time is used as the slow movement.

The work opens in Mozartian style but has an uncommon modulation from A flat to E before the appearance of triplets suddenly before the end of the fragment.

Once again, the F minor Sonata D of September remains unfinished; in this case it is only the slow movement that is missing although it is possible that the Adagio in D flat D could have been intended as a slow movement.

The first movement is incomplete and parts of the final movement are written only as a single line.

Influences of Beethoven and Rossini permeate the opening Allegro. This is one of Schubert's shortest final movements but also one of the most remarkably successful.

The fragment listed as D is one of Schubert's less successful attempts at writing a Sonata movement. Despite one or two moments of beauty, it is rather unbalanced and the composer seems unable to solve the problems he has set himself.

The two Scherzi D, unlike many of Schubert's single movement pieces, seem to have no place in a planned Sonata but stand independently.

The first is a particularly perky and affectionate piece whereas the second is less successful and somehow overdone except for the fine Trio section in A flat major - also used in the E flat Sonata D Sonata in E flat major D - Sonata in E major D - Sonata in C major D CD27 The final years of the eighteenth century were to be a period of enormous change.

The French Revolution with its new ideas of liberty, fraternity and equality completely upset the political and cultural status quo of earlier days.

Romanticism was soon to emerge as the dominant movement in the Arts and established forms and ideas would be turned on their heads in the process.

Born directly into that period, Schubert's position as son of a local schoolmaster may have seemed, at first, unpromising.

But Vienna was a melting pot for different nations and a fast growing centre of music - not only Beethoven and Haydn had moved to Vienna but so too had Hummel, Lachner and Gluck.

Schubert could hardly have found a more appropriate environment to nurture his musical talents. It is often too easy to see Schubert as an establishment composer and it is true that much of his early work has a distinct feel of Mozart about it.

But the young composer was also under the awe of Beethoven and it was to the piano music of the master from Bonn that he was increasingly drawn, a challenge to anyone but a challenge that somehow Schubert took up and managed to develop.

This was the last flowering of the classical Sonata whilst also the beginnings of a new and more fluid approach to form and harmony.

It has been suggested that the tessitura in the original version of the first movement lay too low, that C sharp minor was an unsuitable key for the slow movement and that D flat was simply an unsuitable key for a Sonata.

Whatever the reasons, the E flat version appeared and with it came revisions to the original music. The opening themes of the E flat Sonata have a distinctly Mozartian hue but in the revision, Schubert extends the development section; the movement is characterised by charming rhythms but also with a sense of the nervous.

The following Andante, now transposed into G minor has a disturbed central section before retuming to the calm of the opening. There then follows a Scherzo movement with Trio which again reminds us of Mozart but which also has a charm about it which seems to be Schubert's own.

The final Allegro moderato is again extended from the original text and seems to be a smiling, easily flowing movement with hints of the waltz about it and a total lack of any pretension.

The Sonata in E major D was begun in February and is the very first of Schubert's Sonatas, a combination of youthful confidence and a lack of any affectation.

The following Andante is dreamlike and easy going punctuated by silences - another later trade mark heard here for the first time in the series of Sonatas.

The third and final movement is a Minuet with a bouncy outer section and a quiet, contrasting Trio. With that, the Sonata is at an end, there being no trace of a final Allegro, if indeed one was ever written.

The second of Schubert's early Sonatas is in C major and dates from September , six months after the E major.

The opening movement begins straightforwardly enough, rather like any Mozart Sonata might do, but it soon takes on an air of virtuosity which gets quite carried away by the time of the rapid octaves of the coda.

The slow movement follows and this is a simple three part structure which may have echoes of Beethoven's Second Symphony in its middle part.

Then comes a typically Mozartian Minuet in A minor with its Trio section in a contrasting A major; there is also an alternative Trio in F major.

A fragment exists of an Allegretto in C minor supposedly written on the same type of paper as the Sonata which may or may not have been envisaged as a Finale although the Deutsch catalogue gives it a date of the following year.

Hardly a piece to set against the major Sonatas that make up the most considerable achievement in Schubert's piano repertoire?

In fact the idea of calling these works by such a name was not Schubert's own but that of his publisher Tobias Haslinger who noted on the original copy of the title page of the first of the four D pieces "Impromptu No.

Schubert's original inspiration for the form came from the Bohemian composer Tomastchek and from his pupil Worzischek who first used the term Impromptu for his own Opus 7 in although it is possible to trace the idea also to Beethoven's Bagatelles.

But whilst the once popular pieces of the two Bohemian composers are hardly heard today, Schubert's two sets of Impromptus both opened up a previously unrealised potential for the form and have retained a position as firm favourites with pianists and listeners alike.

Although Schubert contemplated and indeed began a third set of Impromptus, known now simply as the Drei Klavierstücke or Three Piano Pieces D , it is the two sets recorded here which are played regularly.

It was Schumann, another great amongst composers for the keyboard, who suggested that the D Impromptus made up a far more serious work then the title suggested and that critical opinion could rightly be applied to both sets recorded here, albeit most particularly to the second.

The tendency of the sets is to suggest more of a Sonata structure of four interdependent movements and moods without the rigours of Sonata form.

Both sets of Impromptus date from separated by only a few months and initially perhaps seen as a single series, at least Schubert himself originally referred to the first of the D second set as number five but finally decided to issue the set separately, perhaps because of its distinct resemblance to a Sonata of its own.

The first Impromptu of the D set opens in C minor with a theme that resembles his song Der Wegweiser before modulating to A flat major.

The following E flat major piece has the hint of a study with virtuoso triplets in the right hand later Brahms was to arrange this and transfer those triplets into the left hand part there is a contrasting central section and the piece finally comes to a conclusion in the minor.

The third of the series in the key of G flat major is one of Schubert's most serene inspirations and points perhaps towards the Nocturnes of the Romantic composers of a somewhat later period.

Finally, the set concludes with a piece in ternary form starting in A flat major with shimmering arpeggios and modulating to a central, dark section in C sharp minor before returning to its opening transformed to include a secondary theme against the opening arpeggio figures.

The four Impromptus that make up D open with a lengthy and substantial piece in F minor, the first movement almost of a Sonata itself.

Instead of simple ternary form, Schubert opts here for a Sonata-Rondo form in five sections which not only adds the customary second subject but a third theme, lasting much longer.

This is probably the reason that Schubert decided on giving these four Impromptus a separate identity from the earlier set - such a lengthy piece coming in the middle of a series would have seemed very much out of balance.

The A flat piece which forms the second movement of this ImpromptuSonata is safely back in three part form and has a wistful quality to it with a central trio moving into D flat.

Despite its length, this is the genial and lighter side of the composer. Finally, the F minor Impromptu is one of Schubert's most unusual pieces.

Given that the composer was by now suffering from his final disease probably tertiary syphilis , it may be that this music is a result of a somewhat abnormal mental state.

There is a Hungarian quality to the Scherzo dance rhythms and there is a definite imbalance in the length of the central trio section against the opening and closing sections.

Wild scales characterise the end of the trio section and the coda concludes with an amazing scale through six octaves.

Wanderer Fantasie D CD28 Franz Schubert's Wanderer Fantasie, commissioned by a wealthy amateur pianist Emmanuel Liebenberg de Zsittin, was composed in November making it almost contempary with the Unfinished Symphony.

It is unlike much of Schubert's output of the time in that it is aggressive and almost persistently vigourous, for even the slow movement marked Adagio contains much that is rapid and forceful.

Indeed Zsittin, a pupil of Hummel, must have been a more than capable performer to have handled the demands of this forwardlooking work.

There has been a good deal of speculation as to what prompted such a dark work at this particular time of Schubert's life.

Another letter, written from his father's house, suggests that he was unwell. In this letter he is clearly witholding information as to his state of health and it is entirely possible that he had recently become aware of the onset of syphillis.

The Wanderer Fantasie is composed in the form of a four movement sonata with each movement following without a break. The work takes its title from a song Der Wanderer written in Elsewhere Schubert drives his performer hard it was beyond his own capabilities as a pianist and he once cut short a performance to some friends with the statement 'Let the devil play this stuff!

Schubert curtails his opening movements before the recapitulation but allows the final movement to perform this function instead.

Subsequent composers, most notably Liszt, were much strike by this work's original style and the fantasy consequently played an important role of the nineteenth century repertoire.

It also pointed the way ahead to many masterpieces of Schubert's later years. David Doughty. DANCES CD Though a strictly observed ban on dancing existed during Lent and Advent in Vienna at the time Beethoven and Schubert composed there, the rest of the year provided the populace with ample opportunity to indulge in the prevailing dance mania.

According to an entry in the diary of Eduard von. Bauernfeld, who made his name as a comedy writer, Franz Schubert had to strum out waltzes for dancing at a "sausage ball" in Franz van Schober's home.

Then again, Leopold van Sonnleithner tells us how Schubert often "improvised the prettiest waltzes" for hours on end for his friends.

It so happens that Schubert was not particularly discriminating when it came to naming his dances for the piano; in those days, it was not always an easy matter to draw clear distinctions between the individual types of dance.

Like the ridottos in the Imperial and Royal Hofburg in Vienna, the balls held in the salons, in the palaces of the aristocracy and in the homes of the bourgeoisie all leave no doubt in our minds: the minuet had not yet gone out of fashion when the nineteenth century began.

Nevertheless, it was not very long afterwards that the courtly old dance with its "mincing steps" came to be felt obsolete. In Schubert's minuets, the often asymmetrical construction of the two sections making up the form, indicates that they were not meant for the dance floor.

It is interesting to note that he wrote all these pieces early in his career. In for example, during the period in which he composed his First Symphony at the Vienna Stadtkonvikt municipal boarding school in Vienna, he wrote the Minuets and Trios D41 for his brother Ignaz.

One third of the original collection of thirty dances must now be assumed lost. There is also an isolated work in this vein, the E major trio D This little piece of Biedermeier culture has come down to us with the witty annotation: "lost son of a minuet, especially penned for his dear Brother in February ".

A traveller in Bavaria reports that by the late eighteenth century the waltz had already become a veritable "affliction" there. But it was the Austrian capital that established itself as the true home of the new dance.

Suited to a more moderate tempo, Franz Schubert's waltzes for piano are genuine children of the Biedermeier period in Vienna.

A few of them still retain the simple binary form with eight-bar periods. Others are ternary or, like the Twenty Waltzes op. Special popularity was enjoyed by the Trauerwalzer sad waltz , which was published for the first time in the collection of thirty-six Original Dances up.

The waltz - whose nickname is said to have aroused the composer's indignation - had become well known beyond Schubert's immediate circle of friends even before it was published.

At any rate, Carl Czerny was able to present his Variations on a popular Viennese Waltz to the public at a time which more or less coincided with the publication of the original.

The collection of 34 Valses sentimentales op. The title of the collection was presumably chosen by the publisher Anton Diabelli.

The piece de resistance in op. Neither is the title of the collection Twelve Valses nobles op. These dances too were very popular among the composer's friends.

An interesting story lies behind S,chubert's Variation on a waltz by Anton Diabelli, D In , the Vienna publisher challenged an impressive.

Quite contrary to Diabelli's expectations, Beethoven had surprised him by sending a set of no fewer than 33 variations.

After first having published Beethoven's variations as a self-contained work, in the following year Diabelli went on to publish Beethoven's opus together with fifty variations by the "most excellent composers and virtuosos in Vienna and in the Imperial and Royal Austrian states".

Among them were Carl Czerny, Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Anselm Hüttenbrenner, the young Franz Liszt and, of course, Franz Schubert. In , the year of Schubert's death, Tobias Haslinger published the Twelve Graz Waltzes op.

After having put it off several times, he finally paid a longplanned visit to Graz in September For a good three weeks, Schubert was the guest of the lawyer and brewery owner.

Karl Pachler, who lived in a house with no fewer than twelve rooms together with his wife, a pianist Beethoven esteemed highly. In particular, I Will never forget your friendly hospitality, which afforded me the most pleasant few days I have spent for a long time.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the terms "Deutsche" German Dance , "Ländler" and "Walzer" were almost synonymous - and precisely these Graz Waltzes may serve to explain the confusion.

According to Josef von Spaun, Schubert was in the habit of surprising his friends "with the most beautiful German Dances and Ecossaises". More than a hundred of his "German Dances" have come down to us Anton Webern even orchestrated a few of them.

The facts point to Schubert's having composed his Twelve Viennese German Dances, D, as early as , when he was only fifteen.

The Twelve German Dances, D, followed in, The sequence of keys used in these pieces follows a strictly symmetrical plan; an extended coda leads back into the initial key of D major.

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3 Anmerkung zu “Betrug deutscher Teenager s&period

  1. Daizuru

    Absolut ist mit Ihnen einverstanden. Darin ist etwas auch mir scheint es die gute Idee. Ich bin mit Ihnen einverstanden.

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